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    《中華人民共和國民法通則》中英文

    • 2018-10-26 16:42

      中華人民共和國民法通則

    GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE CIVIL LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

      《中華人民共和國民法通則》已由中華人民共和國第六屆全國人民代表大會第四次會議于一九八六年四月十二日通過,現予公布2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,自一九八七年一月一日起施行2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    (Adopted at the Fourth Session of the Sixth National People's Congress, promulgated by on April 12, 1986, and effective as of January 1, 1987)

      目

    Contents

      第一章基本原則

    Chapter I Basic Principles

      第二章公民(自然人)

    Chapter II Citizen (Natural Person)

      第一節民事權利能力和民事行為能力

    Section 1 Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct

      第二節監護

    Section 2 Guardianship

      第三節宣告失蹤和宣告死亡

    Section 3 Declarations of Missing Persons and Death

      第四節個體工商戶、農村承包經營戶

    Section 4 Individual Businesses and Leaseholding Farm Households

      第五節個人合伙

    Section 5 Individual Partnership

      第三章法人

    Chapter III Legal Persons

      第一節一般規定

    Section 1 General Stipulations

      第二節企業法人

    Section 2 Enterprise as Legal Person

      第三節機關、事業單位和社會團體法人

    Section 3 Official Organ, Institution and Social Organization as Legal Persons

      第四節聯營

    Section 4 Economic Association

      第四章民事法律行為和代理

    Chapter IV Civil Juristic Acts and Agency

      第一節民事法律行為

    Section 1 Civil Juristic Acts

      第二節代理

    Section 2 Agency

      第五章民事權利

    Chapter V Civil Rights

      第一節財產所有權和與財產所有權有關的財產權

    Section 1 Property Ownership and Related Property Rights

      第二節債權

    Section 2 Creditors' Rights

      第三節知識產權

    Section 3 Intellectual Property Rights

      第四節人身權

    Section 4 Personal Rights

      第六章民事責任

    Chapter VI Civil Liability

      第一節一般規定

    Section 1 General Stipulations

      第二節違反合同的民事責任

    Section 2 Civil Liability for Breach of Contract

      第三節侵權的民事責任

    Section 3 Civil Liability for Infringement of Rights

      第四節承擔民事責任的方式

    Section 4 Methods of Bearing Civil Liability

      第七章訴訟時效

    Chapter VII Limitation of Action

      第八章涉外民事關系的法律適用

    Chapter VIII Application of Law in Civil Relations with Foreigners

      第九章附則

    Chapter IX Supplementary Provisions

      第一章基本原則

    Chapter I Basic Principles

      第一條為了保障公民2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、法人的合法的民事權益,正確調整民事關系,適應社會主義現代化建設事業發展的需要,根據憲法和我國實際情況2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,總結民事活動的實踐經驗,制定本法。

    Article 1 This Law is formulated in accordance with the Constitution and the actual situation in our country, drawing upon our practical experience in civil activities, for the purpose of protecting the lawful civil rights and interests of citizens and legal persons and correctly adjusting civil relations, so as to meet the needs of the developing socialist modernization.

      第二條中華人民共和國民法調整平等主體的公民之間、法人之間、公民和法人之間的財產關系和人身關系。

    Article 2 The Civil Law of the People's Republic of China shall adjust property relationships and personal relationships between civil subjects with equal status, that is, between citizens, between legal persons and between citizens and legal persons.

      第三條當事人在民事活動中的地位平等2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 3 Parties to a civil activity shall have equal status.

      第四條民事活動應當遵循自愿2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、公平、等價有償、誠實信用的原則2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 4 In civil activities, the principles of voluntariness, fairness, making compensation for equal value, honesty and credibility shall be observed.

      第五條公民2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、法人的合法的民事權益受法律保護,任何組織和個人不得侵犯。

    Article 5 The lawful civil rights and interests of citizens and legal persons shall be protected by law; no organization or individual may infringe upon them.

      第六條民事活動必須遵守法律,法律沒有規定的,應當遵守國家政策2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 6 Civil activities must be in compliance with the law; where there are no relevant provisions in the law, they shall be in compliance with state policies.

      第七條民事活動應當尊重社會公德,不得損害社會公共利益,破壞國家經濟計劃,擾亂社會經濟秩序2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 7 Civil activities shall have respect for social ethics and shall not harm the public interest, undermine state economic plans or disrupt social economic order.

      第八條在中華人民共和國領域內的民事活動,適用中華人民共和國法律,法律另有規定的除外。

    Article 8 The law of the People's Republic of China shall apply to civil activities within the People's Republic of China, except as otherwise stipulated by law.

      本法關于公民的規定,適用于在中華人民共和國領域內的外國人、無國籍人2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,法律另有規定的除外。

    The stipulations of this Law as regards citizens shall apply to foreigners and stateless persons within the People's Republic of China, except as otherwise stipulated by law.

      第二章公民(自然人)

    Chapter II Citizen (Natural Person)

      第一節民事權利能力和民事行為能力

    Section 1 Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct.

      第九條公民從出生時起到死亡時止,具有民事權利能力,依法享有民事權利,承擔民事義務。

    Article 9 A citizen shall have the capacity for civil rights from birth to death and shall enjoy civil rights and assume civil obligations in accordance with the law.

      第十條公民的民事權利能力一律平等。

    Article 10 All citizens are equal as regards their capacity for civil rights.

      第十一條十八周歲以上的公民是成年人,具有完全民事行為能力,可以獨立進行民事活動2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,是完全民事行為能力人。

    Article 11 A citizen aged 18 or over shall be an adult. He shall have full capacity for civil conduct, may independently engage in civil activities and shall be called a person with full capacity for civil conduct.

      十六周歲以上不滿十八周歲的公民,以自己的勞動收入為主要生活來源的,視為完全民事行為能力人2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    A citizen who has reached the age of 16 but not the age of 18 and whose main source of income is his own labour shall be regarded as a person with full capacity for civil conduct.

      第十二條十周歲以上的未成年人是限制民事行為能力人2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,可以進行與他的年齡、智力相適應的民事活動;其他民事活動由他的法定代理人代理,或者征得他的法定代理人的同意。

    Article 12 A minor aged 10 or over shall be a person with limited capacity for civil conduct and may engage in civil activities appropriate to his age and intellect; in other civil activities, he shall be represented by his agent ad litem or participate with the consent of his agent ad litem.

      不滿十周歲的未成年人是無民事行為能力人2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,由他的法定代理人代理民事活動。

    A minor under the age of 10 shall be a person having no capacity for civil conduct and shall be represented in civil activities by his agent ad litem.

      第十三條不能辨認自己行為的精神病人是無民事行為能力人,由他的法定代理人代理民事活動2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 13 A mentally ill person who is unable to account for his own conduct shall be a person having no capacity for civil conduct and shall be represented in civil activities by his agent ad litem.

      不能完全辨認自己行為的精神病人是限制民事行為能力人,可以進行與他的精神健康狀況相適應的民事活動2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    A mentally ill person who is unable to fully account for his own conduct shall be a person with limited capacity for civil conduct and may engage in civil activities appropriate to his mental health;

      其他民事活動由他的法定代理人代理,或者征得他的法定代理人的同意。

    in other civil activities, he shall be represented by his agent ad litem or participate with the consent of his agent ad litem.

      第十四條無民事行為能力人、限制民事行為能力人的監護人是他的法定代理人。

    Article 14 The guardian of a person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct shall be his agent ad litem.

      第十五條公民以他的戶籍所在地的居住地為住所2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,經常居住地與住所不一致的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,經常居住地視為住所。

    Article 15 The domicile of a citizen shall be the place where his residence is registered; if his habitual residence is not the same as his domicile, his habitual residence shall be regarded as his domicile.

      第二章公民(自然人)第二節

    Section 2 Guardianship

      第十六條未成年人的父母是未成年人的監護人2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 16 The parents of a minor shall be his guardians.

      未成年人的父母已經死亡或者沒有監護能力的,由下列人員中有監護能力的人擔任監護人:

    If the parents of a minor are dead or lack the competence to be his guardian, a person from the following categories who has the competence to be a guardian shall act as his guardian:

     ?020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄒ唬┳娓改?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、外祖父母2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (1) paternal or maternal grandparent;

     ?。ǘ┬?020欧洲杯竞猜平台、姐;

    (2) elder brother or sister; or

     ?。ㄈ╆P系密切的其他親屬、朋友愿意承擔監護責任,經未成年人的父、母的所在單位或者未成年人住所地的居民委員會、村民委員會同意的。

    (3) any other closely connected relative or friend willing to bear the responsibility of guardianship and having approval from the units of the minor's parents or from the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of the minor's residence.

      對擔任監護人有爭議的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,由未成年人的父、母的所在單位或者未成年人住所地的居民委員會2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、村民委員會在近親屬中指定。對指定不服提起訴訟的,由人民法院裁決。

    In case of a dispute over guardianship, the units of the minor's parents or the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of his residence shall appoint a guardian from among the minor's near relatives. If disagreement over the appointment leads to a lawsuit, the people's court shall make a ruling.

      沒有第一款、第二款規定的監護人的,由未成年人的父、母的所在單位或者未成年人住所地的居民委員會、村民委員會或者民政部門擔任監護人。

    If none of the persons listed in the first two paragraphs of this article is available to be the guardian, the units of the minor's parents, the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of the minor's residence or the civil affairs department shall act as his guardian.

      第十七條無民事行為能力或者限制民事行為能力的精神病人,由下列人員擔任監護人:

    Article 17 A person from the following categories shall act as guardian for a mentally ill person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct:

     ?020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄒ唬┡渑?020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (1) spouse;

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ǘ└改?;

    (2) parent;

     ?。ㄈ┏赡曜优?;

    (3) adult child;

     ?。ㄋ模┢渌H屬2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (4) any other near relative;

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄎ澹╆P系密切的其他親屬、朋友愿意承擔監護責任,經精神病人的所在單位或者住所地的居民委員會、村民委員會同意的。

    (5) any other closely connected relative or friend willing to bear the responsibility of guardianship and having approval from the unit to which the mentally ill person belongs or from the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of his residence.

      對擔任監護人有爭議的,由精神病人的所在單位或者住所地的居民委員會、村民委員會在近親屬中指定2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。對指定不服提起訴訟的,由人民法院裁決。

    In case of a dispute over guardianship, the unit to which the mentally ill person belongs or the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of his residence shall appoint a guardian from among his near relatives. If disagreement over the appointment leads to a lawsuit, the people's court shall make a ruling.

      沒有第一款規定的監護人的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,由精神病人的所在單位或者住所地的居民委員會、村民委員會或者民政部門擔任監護人。

    If none of the persons listed in the first paragraph of this article is available to be the guardian, the unit to which the mentally ill person belongs, the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of his residence or the civil affairs department shall act as his guardian.

      第十八條監護人應當履行監護職責,保護被監護人的人身、財產及其他合法權益,除為被監護人的利益外,不得處理被監護人的財產。

    Article 18 A guardian shall fulfil his duty of guardianship and protect the person, property and other lawful rights and interests of his ward. A guardian shall not handle the property of his ward unless it is in the ward's interests.

      監護人依法履行監護的權利,受法律保護。

    A guardian's rights to fulfil his guardianship in accordance with the law shall be protected by law.

      監護人不履行監護職責或者侵害被監護人的合法權益的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,應當承擔責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;給被監護人造成財產損失的,應當賠償損失。

    If a guardian does not fulfil his duties as guardian or infringes upon the lawful rights and interests of his ward, he shall be held responsible; if a guardian causes any property loss for his ward, he shall compensate for such loss.

      人民法院可以根據有關人員或者有關單位的申請,撤銷監護人的資格。

    The people's court may disqualify a guardian based on the application of a concerned party or unit.

      第十九條精神病人的利害關系人2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,可以向人民法院申請宣告精神病人為無民事行為能力人或者限制民事行為能力人。

    Article 19 A person who shares interests with a mental patient may apply to a people's court for a declaration that the mental patient is a person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct.

      被人民法院宣告為無民事行為能力人或者限制民事行為能力人的,根據他健康恢復的狀況,經本人或者利害關系人申請,人民法院可以宣告他為限制民事行為能力人或者完全民事行為能力人。

    With the recovery of the health of a person who has been declared by a people's court to be without or with limited capacity for civil conduct, and upon his own application or that of an interested person, the people's court may declare him to be a person with limited or full capacity for civil conduct.

      第三節宣告失蹤和宣告死亡

    Section 3 Declarations of Missing Persons and Death

      第二十條公民下落不明滿二年的,利害關系人可以向人民法院申請宣告他為失蹤人2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 20 If a citizen's whereabouts have been unknown for two years, an interested person may apply to a people's court for a declaration of the citizen as missing.

      戰爭期間下落不明的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,下落不明的時間從戰爭結束之日起計算。

    If a person's whereabouts become unknown during a war, the calculation of the time period in which his whereabouts are unknown shall begin on the final day of the war.

      第二十一條失蹤人的財產由他的配偶2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、父母、成年子女或者關系密切的其他親屬、朋友代管。

    Article 21 A missing person's property shall be placed in the custody of his spouse, parents, adult children or other closely connected relatives or friends.

      代管有爭議的,沒有以上規定的人或者以上規定的人無能力代管的,由人民法院指定的人代管2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    In case of a dispute over custody, if the persons stipulated above are unavailable or are incapable of taking such custody, the property shall be placed in the custody of a person appointed by the people's court.

      失蹤人所欠稅款、債務和應付的其他費用,由代管人從失蹤人的財產中支付。

    Any taxes, debts and other unpaid expenses owed by a missing person shall defrayed by the custodian out of the missing person's property.

      第二十二條被宣告失蹤的人重新出現或者確知他的下落2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,經本人或者利害關系人申請,人民法院應當撤銷對他的失蹤宣告2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 22 In the event that a person who has been declared missing reappears or his whereabouts are ascertained, the people's court shall, upon his own application or that of an interested person, revoke the declaration of his missing-person status.

      第二十三條公民有下列情形之一的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,利害關系人可以向人民法院申請宣告他死亡:

    Article 23 Under either of the following circumstances, an interested person may apply to the people's court for a declaration of a citizen's death:

     ?。ㄒ唬┫侣洳幻鳚M四年的;

    (1) if the citizen's whereabouts have been unknown for four years or

     ?。ǘ┮蛞馔馐鹿氏侣洳幻?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,從事故發生之日起滿二年的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    (2) if the citizen's whereabouts have been unknown for two years after the date of an accident in which he was involved.

      戰爭期間下落不明的,下落不明的時間從戰爭結束之日起計算。

    If a person's whereabouts become unknown during a war, the calculation of the time period in which his whereabouts are unknown shall begin on the final day of the war.

      第二十四條被宣告死亡的人重新出現或者確知他沒有死亡,經本人或者利害關系人申請,人民法院應當撤銷對他的死亡宣告。

    Article 24 In the event that a person who has been declared dead reappears or it is ascertained that he is alive, the people's court shall, upon his own application or that of an interested person, revoke the declaration of his death.

      有民事行為能力人在被宣告死亡期間實施的民事法律行為有效。

    Any civil juristic acts performed by a person with capacity for civil conduct during the period in which he has been declared dead shall be valid.

      第二十五條被撤銷死亡宣告的人有權請求返還財產。依照繼承法取得他的財產的公民或者組織2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,應當返還原物;原物不存在的,給予適當補償。

    Article 25 A person shall have the right to request the return of his property, if the declaration of his death has been revoked. Any citizen or organization that has obtained such property in accordance with the Law of Succession shall return the original items or make appropriate compensation if the original items no longer exist.

      第二章公民(自然人)第四節個體工商戶、農村承包經營戶

    Section 4 Individual Businesses and Leaseholding Farm Households

      第二十六條公民在法律允許的范圍內,依法經核準登記,從事工商業經營的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,為個體工商戶。個體工商戶可以起字號。

    Article 26 "Individual businesses" refers to business run by individual citizens who have been lawfully registered and approved to engage in industrial or commercial operation within the sphere permitted by law. An individual business may adopt a shop name.

      第二十七條農村集體經濟組織的成員,在法律允許的范圍內,按照承包合同規定從事商品經營的,為農村承包經營戶。

    Article 27 "Leaseholding farm households" refers to members of a rural collective economic organization who engage in commodity production under a contract and within the spheres permitted by law.

      第二十八條個體工商戶2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、農村承包經營戶的合法權益,受法律保護2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 28 The legitimate rights and interests of individual businesses and leaseholding farm households shall be protected by law.

      第二十九條個體工商戶、農村承包經營戶的債務,個人經營的,以個人財產承擔;家庭經營的,以家庭財產承擔。

    Article 29 The debts of an individual business or a leaseholding farm household shall be secured with the individual's property if the business is operated by an individual and with the family's property if the business is operated by a family.

      第二章公民(自然人)第五節個人合伙

    Section 5 Individual Partnership

      第三十條個人合伙是指兩個以上公民按照協議2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,各自提供資金2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、實物、技術等2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,合伙經營、共同勞動2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 30 "Individual partnership" refers to two or more citizens associated in a business and working together, with each providing funds, material objects, techniques and so on according to an agreement.

      第三十一條合伙人應當對出資數額、盈余分配、債務承擔、入伙、退伙2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、合伙終止等事項,訂立書面協議。

    Article 31 Partners shall make a written agreement covering the funds each is to provide, the distribution of profits, the responsibility for debts, the entering into and withdrawal from partnership, the ending of partnership and other such matters.

      第三十二條合伙人投入的財產,由合伙人統一管理和使用。

    Article 32 The property provided by the partners shall be under their unified management and use.

      合伙經營積累的財產,歸合伙人共有2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    The property accumulated in a partnership operation shall belong to all the partners.

      第三十三條個人合伙可以起字號2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,依法經核準登記,在核準登記的經營范圍內從事經營。

    Article 33 An individual partnership may adopt a shop name; it shall be approved and registered in accordance with the law and conduct business operations within the range as approved and registered.

      第三十四條個人合伙的經營活動,由合伙人共同決定,合伙人有執行和監督的權利。

    Article 34 The operational activities of an individual partnership shall be decided jointly by the partners, who each shall have the right to carry out and supervise those activities. The partners may elect a responsible person.

      合伙人可以推舉負責人。合伙負責人和其他人員的經營活動2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,由全體合伙人承擔民事責任。

    All partners shall bear civil liability for the operational activities of the responsible person and other personnel.

      第三十五條合伙的債務,由合伙人按照出資比例或者協議的約定,以各自的財產承擔清償責任。

    Article 35 A partnership's debts shall be secured with the partners' property in proportion to their respective contributions to the investment or according to the agreement made.

      合伙人對合伙的債務承擔連帶責任,法律另有規定的除外2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Partners shall undertake joint liability for their partnership's debts, except as otherwise stipulated by law.

      償還合伙債務超過自己應當承擔數額的合伙人,有權向其他合伙人追償。

    Any partner who overpays his share of the partnership's debts shall have the right to claim compensation from the other partners.

      第三章第一節一般規定

    Chapter III Legal Persons Section 1 General Stipulations

      第三十六條法人是具有民事權利能力和民事行為能力,依法獨立享有民事權利和承擔民事義務的組織2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 36 A legal person shall be an organization that has capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil conduct and independently enjoys civil rights and assumes civil obligations in accordance with the law.

      法人的民事權利能力和民事行為能力,從法人成立時產生,到法人終止時消滅。

    A legal person's capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil conduct shall begin when the legal person is established and shall end when the legal person terminates.

      第三十七條法人應當具備下列條件:

    Article 37 A legal person shall have the following qualifications:

     ?。ㄒ唬┮婪ǔ闪?;

    (1) establishment in accordance with the law;

     ?。ǘ┯斜匾呢敭a或者經費2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (2) possession of the necessary property or funds;

     ?。ㄈ┯凶约旱拿Q2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、組織機構和場所;

    (3) possession of its own name, organization and premises;

     ?。ㄋ模┠軌颡毩⒊袚袷仑熑?。

    and (4) ability to independently bear civil liability.

      第三十八條依照法律或者法人組織章程規定,代表法人行使職權的負責人,是法人的法定代表人2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 38 In accordance with the law or the articles of association of the legal person, the responsible person who acts on behalf of the legal person in exercising its functions and powers shall be its legal representative.

      第三十九條法人以它的主要辦事機構所在地為住所2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 39 A legal person's domicile shall be the place where its main administrative office is located.

      第四十條法人終止,應當依法進行清算,停止清算范圍外的活動。

    Article 40 When a legal person terminates, it shall go into liquidation in accordance with the law and discontinue all other activities.

      第三章第二節企業法人

    Section 2 Enterprise as Legal Person

      第四十一條全民所有制企業、集體所有制企業有符合國家規定的資金數額,有組織章程2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、組織機構和場所,能夠獨立承擔民事責任,經主管機關核準登記,取得法人資格。

    Article 41 An enterprise owned by the whole people or under collective ownership shall be qualified as a legal person when it has sufficient funds as stipulated by the state; has articles of association, an organization and premises; has the ability to independently bear civil liability; and has been approved and registered by the competent authority.

      在中華人民共和國領域內設立的中外合資經營企業2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、中外合作經營企業和外資企業2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,具備法人條件的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,依法經工商行政管理機關核準登記2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,取得中國法人資格2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    A Chinese- foreign equity joint venture, Chinese-foreign contractual joint venture or foreign-capital enterprise established within the People's Republic of China shall be qualified as a legal person in China if it has the qualifications of a legal person and has been approved and registered by the administrative agency for industry and commerce in according with the law.

      第四十二條企業法人應當在核準登記的經營范圍內從事經營。

    Article 42 An enterprise as legal person shall conduct operations within the range approved and registered.

      第四十三條企業法人對它的法定代表人和其他工作人員的經營活動,承擔民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 43 An enterprise as legal person shall bear civil liability for the operational activities of its legal representatives and other personnel.

      第四十四條企業法人分立、合并或者有其他重要事項變更,應當向登記機關辦理登記并公告。

    Article 44 If an enterprise as legal person is divided or merged or undergoes any other important change, it shall register the change with the registration authority and publicly announce it.

      企業法人分立2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、合并2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,它的權利和義務由變更后的法人享有和承擔。

    When an enterprise as legal person is divided or merged, its rights and obligations shall be enjoyed and assumed by the new legal person that results from the change.

      第四十五條企業法人由于下列原因之一終止:

    Article 45 An enterprise as legal person shall terminate for any of the following reasons:

     ?。ㄒ唬┮婪ū怀蜂N;

    (1) if it is dissolved by law;

     ?020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ǘ┙馍?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (2) if it is disbanded;

     ?。ㄈ┮婪ㄐ嫫飘a;

    (3) if it is declared bankrupt in accordance with the law;

     ?。ㄋ模┢渌?。

    or (4) for other reasons.

      第四十六條企業法人終止,應當向登記機關辦理注銷登記并公告。

    Article 46 When an enterprise as legal person terminates, it shall cancel its registration with the registration authority and publicly announce the termination.

      第四十七條企業法人解散,應當成立清算組織,進行清算。企業法人被撤銷、被宣告破產的,應當由主管機關或者人民法院組織有關機關和有關人員成立清算組織,進行清算。

    Article 47 When an enterprise as legal person is disbanded, it shall establish a liquidation organization and go into liquidation. When an enterprise as legal person is dissolved or is declared bankrupt, the competent authority or a people's court shall organize the organs and personnel concerned to establish a liquidation organization to liquidate the enterprise.

      第四十八條全民所有制企業法人以國家授予它經營管理的財產承擔民事責任。

    Article 48 An enterprise owned by the whole people, as legal person, shall bear civil liability with the property that the state authorizes it to manage.

      集體所有制企業法人以企業所有的財產承擔民事責任。

    An enterprise under collective ownership, as legal person, shall bear civil liability with the property it owns.

      中外合資經營企業法人、中外合作經營企業法人和外資企業法人以企業所有的財產承擔民事責任,法律另有規定的除外。

    A Chinese-foreign equity joint venture, Chinese-foreign contractual joint venture or foreign-capital enterprise as legal person shall bear civil liability with the property it owns, except as stipulated otherwise by law.

      第四十九條企業法人有下列情形之一的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,除法人承擔責任外,對法定代表人可以給予行政處分2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、罰款2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,構成犯罪的,依法追究刑事責任:

    Article 49 Under any of the following circumstances, an enterprise as legal person shall bear liability, its legal representative may additionally be given administrative sanctions and fined and, if the offence constitutes a crime, criminal responsibility shall be investigated in accordance with the law:

     ?。ㄒ唬┏龅怯洐C關核準登記的經營范圍從事非法經營的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (1) conducting illegal operations beyond the range approved and registered by the registration authority;

     ?。ǘ┫虻怯洐C關、稅務機關隱瞞真實情況、弄虛作假的;

    (2) concealing facts from the registration and tax authorities and practising fraud;

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄈ┏樘淤Y金、隱匿財產逃避債務的;

    (3) secretly withdrawing funds or hiding property to evade repayment of debts;

     ?。ㄋ模┙馍?、被撤銷、被宣告破產后2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,擅自處理財產的;

    (4) disposing of property without authorization after the enterprise is dissolved, disbanded or declared bankrupt;

     ?。ㄎ澹┳兏?、終止時不及時申請辦理登記和公告,使利害關系人遭受重大損失的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (5) failing to apply for registration and make a public announcement promptly when the enterprise undergoes a change or terminates, thus causing interested persons to suffer heavy losses;

     ?。氖路山沟钠渌顒?,損害國家利益或者社會公共利益的。

    (6) engaging in other activities prohibited by law, damaging the interests of the state or the public interest.

      第三章第三節機關、事業單位和社會團體法人

    Section 3 Official Organ, Institution and Social Organization as Legal Person

      第五十條有獨立經費的機關從成立之日起2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,具有法人資格。

    Article 50 An independently funded official organ shall be qualified as a legal person on the day it is established.

      具備法人條件的事業單位、社會團體,依法不需要辦理法人登記的,從成立之日起,具有法人資格;依法需要辦理法人登記的,經核準登記,取得法人資格。

    If according to law an institution or social organization having the qualifications of a legal person needs not go through the procedures for registering as a legal person, it shall be qualified as a legal person on the day it is established; if according to law it does need to go through the registration procedures, it shall be qualified as a legal person after being approved and registered.

      第三章第四節

    Section 4 Economic Association

      第五十一條企業之間或者企業、事業單位之間聯營,組成新的經濟實體,獨立承擔民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、具備法人條件的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,經主管機關核準登記,取得法人資格。

    Article 51 If a new economic entity is formed by enterprises or an enterprise and an institution that engage in economic association and it independently bears civil liability and has the qualifications of a legal person, the new entity shall be qualified as a legal person after being approved and registered by the competent authority.

      第五十二條企業之間或者企業、事業單位之間聯營,共同經營、不具備法人條件的,由聯營各方按照出資比例或者協議的約定,以各自所有的或者經營管理的財產承擔民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 52 If the enterprises or an enterprise and an institution that engage in economic association conduct joint operation but do not have the qualifications of a legal person, each party to the association shall, in proportion to its respective contribution to the investment or according to the agreement made, bear civil liability with the property each party owns or manages.

      依照法律的規定或者協議的約定負連帶責任的,承擔連帶責任。

    If joint liability is specified by law or by agreement, the parties shall assume joint liability.

      第五十三條企業之間或者企業、事業單位之間聯營,按照合同的約定各自獨立經營的,它的權利和義務由合同約定,各自承擔民事責任。

    Article 53 If the contract for economic association of enterprises or of an enterprise and an institution specifies that each party shall conduct operations independently, it shall stipulate the rights and obligations of each party, and each party shall bear civil liability separately.

      第四章民事法律行為和代理第一節民事法律行為

    Chapter IV Civil Juristic Acts and Agency Section 1 Civil Juristic Acts

      第五十四條民事法律行為是公民或者法人設立、變更2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、終止民事權利和民事義務的合法行為。

    Article 54 A civil juristic act shall be the lawful act of a citizen or legal person to establish, change or terminate civil rights and obligations.

      第五十五條民事法律行為應當具備下列條件:

    Article 55 A civil juristic act shall meet the following requirements:

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄒ唬┬袨槿司哂邢鄳拿袷滦袨槟芰?;

    (1) the actor has relevant capacity for civil conduct;

     ?。ǘ┮馑急硎菊鎸?;

    (2) the intention expressed is genuine;

     ?。ㄈ┎贿`反法律或者社會公共利益。

    and (3) the act does not violate the law or the public interest.

      第五十六條民事法律行為可以采取書面形式2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、口頭形式或者其他形式。

    Article 56 A civil juristic act may be in written, oral or other form.

      法律規定是特定形式的,應當依照法律規定。

    If the law stipulates that a particular form be adopted, such stipulation shall be observed.

      第五十七條民事法律行為從成立時起具有法律約束力2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 57 A civil juristic act shall be legally binding once it is instituted.

      行為人非依法律規定或者取得對方同意,不得擅自變更或者解除。

    The actor shall not alter or rescind his act except in accordance with the law or with the other party's consent.

      第五十八條下列民事行為無效:

    Article 58 Civil acts in the following categories shall be null and void:

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄒ唬o民事行為能力人實施的;

    (1) those performed by a person without capacity for civil conduct;

     ?。ǘ┫拗泼袷滦袨槟芰θ艘婪ú荒塥毩嵤┑?;

    (2) those that according to law may not be independently performed by a person with limited capacity for civil conduct;

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄈ┮环揭云墼p2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、脅迫的手段或者乘人之危,使對方在違背真實意思的情況下所為的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (3) those performed by a person against his true intentions as a result of cheating, coercion or exploitation of his unfavourable position by the other party;

     ?。ㄋ模阂獯?,損害國家2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、集體或者第三人利益的;

    (4) those that performed through malicious collusion are detrimental to the interest of the state, a collective or a third party;

     ?。ㄎ澹┻`反法律或者社會公共利益的;

    (5) those that violate the law or the public interest;

     ?。┙洕贤`反國家指令性計劃的;

    (6) economic contracts that violate the state's mandatory plans;

     ?。ㄆ撸┮院戏ㄐ问窖谏w非法目的的。

    and (7) those that performed under the guise of legitimate acts conceal illegitimate purposes.

      無效的民事行為,從行為開始起就沒有法律約束力。

    Civil acts that are null and void shall not be legally binding from the very beginning.

      第五十九條下列民事行為,一方有權請求人民法院或者仲裁機關予以變更或者撤銷:

    Article 59 A party shall have the right to request a people's court or an arbitration agency to alter or rescind the following civil acts:

     ?。ㄒ唬┬袨槿藢π袨閮热萦兄卮笳`解的;

    (1) those performed by an actor who seriously misunderstood the contents of the acts;

     ?。ǘ╋@失公平的。

    (2) those that are obviously unfair.

      被撤銷的民事行為從行為開始起無效。

    Rescinded civil acts shall be null and void from the very beginning.

      第六十條民事行為部分無效2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,不影響其他部分的效力的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,其他部分仍然有效。

    Article 60 If part of a civil act is null and void, it shall not affect the validity of other parts.

      第六十一條民事行為被確認為無效或者被撤銷后2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,當事人因該行為取得的財產2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,應當返還給受損失的一方。

    Article 61 After a civil act has been determined to be null and void or has been rescinded, the party who acquired property as a result of the act shall return it to the party who suffered a loss.

      有過錯的一方應當賠償對方因此所受的損失2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,對方都有過錯的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,應當各自承擔相應的責任。

    The erring party shall compensate the other party for the losses it suffered as a result of the act; if both sides are in error, they shall each bear their proper share of the responsibility.

      雙方惡意串通2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,實施民事行為損害國家的、集體的或者第三人的利益的,應當追繳雙方取得的財產,收歸國家、集體所有或者返還第三人2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    If the two sides have conspired maliciously and performed a civil act that is detrimental to the interests of the state, a collective or a third party, the property that they thus obtained shall be recovered and turned over to the state or the collective, or returned to the third party.

      第六十二條民事法律行為可以附條件,附條件的民事法律行為在符合所附條件時生效。

    Article 62 A civil juristic act may have conditions attached to it. Conditional civil juristic acts shall take effect when the relevant conditions are met.

      第四章民事法律行為和代理第二節代理

    Section 2 Agency

      第六十三條公民、法人可以通過代理人實施民事法律行為。

    Article 63 Citizens and legal persons may perform civil juristic acts through agents

      代理人在代理權限內,以被代理人的名義實施民事法律行為。

    An agent shall perform civil juristic acts in the principal's name within the scope of the power of agency.

      被代理人對代理人的代理行為,承擔民事責任。

    The principal shall bear civil liability for the agent's acts of agency.

      依照法律規定或者按照雙方當事人約定,應當由本人實施的民事法律行為,不得代理。

    Civil juristic acts that should be performed by the principal himself, pursuant to legal provisions or the agreement between the two parties, shall not be entrusted to an agent.

      第六十四條代理包括委托代理2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、法定代理和指定代理。

    Article 64 Agency shall include entrusted agency, statutory agency and appointed agency.

      委托代理人按照被代理人的委托行使代理權,法定代理人依照法律的規定行使代理權,指定代理人按照人民法院或者指定單位的指定行使代理權。

    An entrusted agent shall exercise the power of agency as entrusted by the principal; a statutory agent shall exercise the power of agency as prescribed by law; and an appointed agent shall exercise the power of agency as designated by a people's court or the appointing unit.

      第六十五條民事法律行為的委托代理,可以用書面形式,也可以用口頭形式。

    Article 65 A civil juristic act may be entrusted to an agent in writing or orally.

      法律規定用書面形式的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,應當用書面形式。

    If legal provisions require the entrustment to be written, it shall be effected in writing.

      書面委托代理的授權委托書應當載明代理人的姓名或者名稱、代理事項、權限和期間,并由委托人簽名或者蓋章2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Where the entrustment of agency is in writing, the power of attorney shall clearly state the agent's name, the entrusted tasks and the scope and duration of the power of agency, and it shall be signed or sealed by the principal.

      委托書授權不明的,被代理人應當向第三人承擔民事責任,代理人負連帶責任。

    If the power of attorney is not clear as to the authority conferred, the principal shall bear civil liability towards the third party, and the agent shall be held jointly liable.

      第六十六條沒有代理權、超越代理權或者代理權終止后的行為,只有經過被代理人的追認,被代理人才承擔民事責任。

    Article 66 The principal shall bear civil liability for an act performed by an actor with no power of agency, beyond the scope of his power of agency or after his power of agency has expired, only if he recognizes the act retroactively.

      未經追認的行為,由行為人承擔民事責任。

    If the act is not so recognized, the performer shall bear civil liability for it.

      本人知道他人以本人名義實施民事行為而不作否認表示的,視為同意。

    If a principal is aware that a civil act is being executed in his name but fails to repudiate it, his consent shall be deemed to have been given.

      代理人不履行職責而給被代理人造成損害的,應當承擔民事責任。

    An agent shall bear civil liability if he fails to perform his duties and thus causes damage to the principal.

      代理人和第三人串通,損害被代理人的利益的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,由代理人和第三人負連帶責任。

    If an agent and a third party in collusion harm the principal's interests, the agent and the third party shall be held jointly liable.

      第三人知道行為人沒有代理權、超越代理權或者代理權已終止還與行為人實施民事行為給他人造成損害的,由第三人和行為人負連帶責任。

    If a third party is aware that an actor has no power of agency, is overstepping his power of agency, or his power of agency has expired and yet joins him in a civil act and thus brings damage to other people, the third party and the actor shall be held jointly liable.

      第六十七條代理人知道被委托代理的事項違法仍然進行代理活動的,或者被代理人知道代理人的代理行為違法不表示反對的,由被代理人和代理人負連帶責任。

    Article 67 If an agent is aware that the matters entrusted are illegal but still carries them out, or if a principal is aware that his agent's acts are illegal but fails to object to them, the principal and the agent shall be held jointly liable.

      第六十八條委托代理人為被代理人的利益需要轉托他人代理的,應當事先取得被代理人的同意。

    Article 68 If in the principal's interests an entrusted agent needs to transfer the agency to another person, he shall first obtain the principal's consent.

      事先沒有取得被代理人同意的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,應當在事后及時告訴被代理人,如果被代理人不同意2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,由代理人對自己所轉托的人的行為負民事責任,但在緊急情況下,為了保護被代理人的利益而轉托他

    If the principal's consent is not obtained in advance, the matter shall be reported to him promptly after the transfer, and if the principal objects, the agent shall bear civil liability for the acts of the transferee;

      人代理的除外2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    however, an entrusted agency transferred in emergency circumstances in order to safeguard the principal's interests shall be excepted.

      第六十九條有下列情形之一的,委托代理終止:

    Article 69 An entrusted agency shall end under any of the following circumstances:

     ?。ㄒ唬┐砥陂g屆滿或者代理事務完成;

    (1) when the period of agency expires or when the tasks entrusted are completed;

     ?。ǘ┍淮砣巳∠谢蛘叽砣宿o去委托2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (2) when the principal rescinds the entrustment or the agent declines the entrustment;

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄈ┐砣怂劳?;

    (3) when the agent dies;

     ?。ㄋ模┐砣藛适袷滦袨槟芰?;

    (4) when the principal loses his capacity for civil conduct;

     ?。ㄎ澹┳鳛楸淮砣嘶蛘叽砣说姆ㄈ私K止。

    or (5) when the principal or the agent ceases to be a legal person.

      第七十條有下列情形之一的,法定代理或者指定代理終止:

    Article 70 A statutory or appointed agency shall end under any of the following circumstances:

     ?。ㄒ唬┍淮砣巳〉没蛘呋謴兔袷滦袨槟芰?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (1) when the principal gains or recovers capacity for civil conduct;

     ?。ǘ┍淮砣嘶蛘叽砣怂劳?;

    (2) when the principal or the agent dies;

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄈ┐砣藛适袷滦袨槟芰?;

    (3) when the agent loses capacity for civil conduct;

     ?。ㄋ模┲付ù淼娜嗣穹ㄔ夯蛘咧付▎挝蝗∠付?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (4) when the people's court or the unit that appointed the agent rescinds the appointment;

     ?。ㄎ澹┯善渌蛞鸬谋淮砣撕痛砣酥g的監護關系消滅2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    or (5) when the guardian relationship between the principal and the agent ends for other reasons.

      第五章民事權利第一節財產所有權和與財產所有權有關的財產權

    Chapter V Civil Rights Section 1 Property Ownership and Related Property Rights

      第七十一條財產所有權是指所有人依法對自己的財產享有占有、使用、收益和處分的權利2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 71 "Property ownership" means the owner's rights to lawfully possess, utilize, profit from and dispose of his property.

      第七十二條財產所有權的取得,不得違反法律規定2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 72 Property ownership shall not be obtained in violation of the law.

      按照合同或者其他合法方式取得財產的,財產所有權從財產交付時起轉移,法律另有規定或者當事人另有約定的除外2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Unless the law stipulates otherwise or the parties concerned have agreed on other arrangements, the ownership of property obtained by contract or by other lawful means shall be transferred simultaneously with the property itself.

      第七十三條國家財產屬于全民所有。

    Article 73 State property shall be owned by the whole people.

      國家財產神圣不可侵犯,禁止任何組織或者個人侵占、哄搶、私分、截留、破壞。

    State property is sacred and inviolable, and no organization or individual shall be allowed to seize, encroach upon, privately divide, retain or destroy it.

      第七十四條勞動群眾集體組織的財產屬于勞動群眾集體所有,包括:

    Article 74 Property of collective organizations of the working masses shall be owned collectively by the working masses. This shall include:

     ?。ㄒ唬┓梢幎榧w所有的土地和森林2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、山嶺、草原、荒地、灘涂等;

    (1) land, forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land, beaches and other areas that are stipulated by law to be under collective ownership;

     ?020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ǘ┘w經濟組織的財產2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (2) property of collective economic organizations;

     ?。ㄈ┘w所有的建筑物、水庫、農田水利設施和教育、科學2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、文化、衛生、體育等設施;

    (3) collectively owned buildings, reservoirs, farm irrigation facilities and educational, scientific, cultural, health, sports and other facilities;

     ?。ㄋ模┘w所有的其他財產2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    and (4) other property that is collectively owned.

      集體所有的土地依照法律屬于村農民集體所有,由村農業生產合作社等農業集體經濟組織或者村民委員會經營、管理。

    Collectively owned land shall be owned collectively by the village peasants in accordance with the law and shall be worked and managed by village agricultural production cooperatives, other collective agricultural economic organizations or villages' committees.

      已經屬于鄉(鎮)農民集體經濟組織所有的,可以屬于鄉(鎮)農民集體所有。

    Land already under the ownership of the township (town) peasants' collective economic organizations may be collectively owned by the peasants of the township (town).

      集體所有的財產受法律保護2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,禁止任何組織或者個人侵占、哄搶、私分、破壞或者非法查封、扣押、凍結、沒收2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Collectively owned property shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may seize, encroach upon, privately divide, destroy or illegally seal up, distrain, freeze or confiscate it.

      第七十五條公民的個人財產,包括公民的合法收入、房屋、儲蓄、生活用品2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、文物2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、圖書資料2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、林木、牲畜和法律允許公民所有的生產資料以及其他合法財產。

    Article 75 A citizen's personal property shall include his lawfully earned income, housing, savings, articles for daily use, objects d'art, books, reference materials, trees, livestock, as well as means of production the law permits a citizen to possess and other lawful property.

      公民的合法財產受法律保護2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,禁止任何組織或者個人侵占、哄搶、破壞或者非法查封、扣押、凍結、沒收2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    A citizen's lawful property shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may appropriate, encroach upon, destroy or illegally seal up, distrain, freeze or confiscate it.

      第七十六條公民依法享有財產繼承權2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 76 Citizens shall have the right of inheritance under the law.

      第七十七條社會團體包括宗教團體的合法財產受法律保護。

    Article 77 The lawful property of social organizations, including religious organizations, shall be protected by law.

      第七十八條財產可以由兩個以上的公民2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、法人共有2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 78 Property may be owned jointly by two or more citizens or legal persons.

      共有分為按份共有和共同共有。按份共有人按照各自的份額,對共有財產分享權利,分擔義務2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。共同共有人對共有財產享有權利2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,承擔義務。

    There shall be two kinds of joint ownership, namely co-ownership by shares and common ownership. Each of the co-owners by shares shall enjoy the rights and assume the obligations respecting the joint property in proportion to his share. Each of the common owners shall enjoy the rights and assume the obligations respecting the joint property.

      按份共有財產的每個共有人有權要求將自己的份額分出或者轉讓。

    Each co-owner by shares shall have the right to withdraw his own share of the joint property or transfer its ownership.

      但在出售時,其他共有人在同等條件下,有優先購買的權利。

    However, when he offers to sell his share, the other co-owners shall have a right of pre-emption if all other conditions are equal.

      第七十九條所有人不明的埋藏物、隱藏物,歸國家所有。接收單位應當對上繳的單位或者個人,給予表揚或者物質獎勵2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 79 If the owner of a buried or concealed object is unknown, the object shall belong to the state. The unit that receives the object shall commend or give a material reward to the unit or individual that turns in the object.

      拾得遺失物2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、漂流物或者失散的飼養動物2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,應當歸還失主,因此而支出的費用由失主償還2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Lost-and-found objects, flotsam and stray animals shall be returned to their rightful owners, and any costs thus incurred shall be reimbursed by the owners.

      第八十條國家所有的土地2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,可以依法由全民所有制單位使用,也可以依法確定由集體所有制單位使用,國家保護它的使用2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、收益的權利2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;使用單位有管理2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、保護2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、合理利用的義務。

    Article 80 State-owned land may be used according to law by units under ownership by the whole people; it may also be lawfully assigned for use by units under collective ownership. The state shall protect the usufruct of the land, and the usufructuary shall be obligated to manage, protect and properly use the land.

      公民、集體依法對集體所有的或者國家所有由集體使用的土地的承包經營權,受法律保護。

    The right of citizens and collectives to contract for management of land under collective ownership or of state-owned land under collective use shall be protected by law.

      承包雙方的權利和義務,依照法律由承包合同規定2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    The rights and obligations of the two contracting parties shall be stipulated in the contract signed in accordance with the law.

      土地不得買賣、出租2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、抵押或者以其他形式非法轉讓2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Land may not be sold, leased, mortgaged or illegally transferred by any other means.

      第八十一條國家所有的森林、山嶺、草原2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、荒地、灘涂、水面等自然資源2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,可以依法由全民所有制單位使用,也可以依法確定由集體所有制單位使用,國家保護它的使用、收益的權利;使用單位有管理、保護、合理利用的義務2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 81 State-owned forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land, beaches, water surfaces and other natural resources may be used according to law by units under ownership by the whole people; or they may also be lawfully assigned for use by units under collective ownership. The state shall protect the usufruct of those resources, and the usufructuary shall be obliged to manage, protect and properly use them.

      國家所有的礦藏,可以依法由全民所有制單位和集體所有制單位開采2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,也可以依法由公民采挖2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。國家保護合法的采礦權。

    State-owned mineral resources may be mined according to law by units under ownership by the whole people and units under collective ownership;

      公民2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、集體依法對集體所有的或者國家所有由集體使用的森林、山嶺、草原、荒地2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、灘涂、水面的承包經營權2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,受法律保護。

    citizens may also lawfully mine such resources. The state shall protect lawful mining rights.

      承包雙方的權利和義務,依照法律由承包合同規定。

    The rights and obligations of the two contracting parties shall be stipulated in the contract in accordance with the law.

      國家所有的礦藏、水流,國家所有的和法律規定屬于集體所有的林地、山嶺、草原、荒地2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、灘涂不得買賣2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、出租2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、抵押或者以其他形式非法轉讓。

    State-owned mineral resources and waters as well as forest land, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land and beaches owned by the state and those that are lawfully owned by collectives may not be sold, leased, mortgaged or illegally transferred by any other means.

      第八十二條全民所有制企業對國家授予它經營管理的財產依法享有經營權,受法律保護。

    Article 82 Enterprises under ownership by the whole people shall lawfully enjoy the rights of management over property that the state has authorized them to manage and operate, and the rights shall be protected by law.

      第八十三條不動產的相鄰各方,應當按照有利生產2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、方便生活、團結互助、公平合理的精神2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,正確處理截水、排水、通行、通風、采光等方面的相鄰關系。給相鄰方造成妨礙或者損失的,應當停止侵害,排除妨礙,賠償損失。

    Article 83 In the spirit of helping production, making things convenient for people's lives, enhancing unity and mutual assistance, and being fair and reasonable, neighbouring users of real estate shall maintain proper neighbourly relations over such matters as water supply, drainage, passageway, ventilation and lighting. Anyone who causes obstruction or damage to his neighbour, shall stop the infringement, eliminate the obstruction and compensate for the damage.

      第五章民事權利第二節

    Section 2 Creditors' Rights

      第八十四條債是按照合同的約定或者依照法律的規定2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,在當事人之間產生的特定的權利和義務關系2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,享有權利的人是債權人,負有義務的人是債務人2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 84 A debt represents a special relationship of rights and obligations established between the parties concerned, either according to the agreed terms of a contract or legal provisions. The party entitled to the rights shall be the creditor, and the party assuming the obligations shall be the debtor.

      債權人有權要求債務人按照合同的約定或者依照法律的規定履行義務2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    The creditor shall have the right to demand that the debtor fulfil his obligations as specified by the contract or according to legal provisions.

      第八十五條合同是當事人之間設立、變更、終止民事關系的協議2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。依法成立的合同,受法律保護2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 85 A contract shall be an agreement whereby the parties establish, change or terminate their civil relationship. Lawfully established contracts shall be protected by law.

      第八十六條債權人為二人以上的,按照確定的份額分享權利2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。債務人為二人以上的,按照確定的份額分擔義務。

    Article 86 When there are two or more creditors to a deal, each creditor shall be entitled to rights in proportion to his proper share of the credit. When there are two or more debtors to a deal, each debtor shall assume obligations in proportion to his share of the debt.

      第八十七條債權人或者債務人一方人數為二人以上的,依照法律的規定或者當事人的約定,享有連帶權利的每個債權人,都有權要求債務人履行義務;負有連帶義務的每個債務人2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,都負有清償全部債務的義務,履行了義務的人,有權要求其他負有連帶義務的人償付他應當承擔的份額。

    Article 87 When there are two or more creditors or debtors to a deal, each of the joint creditors shall be entitled to demand that the debtor fulfil his obligations, in accordance with legal provisions or the agreement between the parties; each of the joint debtors shall be obliged to perform the entire debt, and the debtor who performs the entire debt shall be entitled to ask the other joint debtors to reimburse him for their shares of the debt.

      第八十八條合同的當事人應當按照合同的約定2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,全部履行自己的義務2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 88 The parties to a contract shall fully fulfil their obligations pursuant to the terms of the contract.

      合同中有關質量、期限、地點或者價款約定不明確,按照合同有關條款內容不能確定,當事人又不能通過協商達成協議的,適用下列規定:

    If a contract contains ambiguous terms regarding quality, time limit for performance, place of performance, or price, and the intended meaning cannot be determined from the context of relevant terms in the contract, and if the parties cannot reach an agreement through consultation, the provisions below shall apply:

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄒ唬┵|量要求不明確的,按照國家質量標準履行,沒有國家質量標準的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,按照通常標準履行。

    (1) If quality requirements are unclear, state quality standards shall apply; if there are no state quality standards, generally held standards shall apply.

     ?。ǘ┞男衅谙薏幻鞔_的,債務人可以隨時向債權人履行義務,債權人也可以隨時要求債務人履行義務,但應當給對方必要的準備時間。

    (2) If the time limit for performance is unclear, the debtor may at his convenience fulfill his obligations towards the creditor; the creditor may also demand at any time that the debtor perform his obligations, but sufficient notice shall be given to the debtor.

     ?。ㄈ┞男械攸c不明確,給付貨幣的,在接受給付一方的所在地履行2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,其他標的在履行義務一方的所在地履行2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    (3) If the place of performance is unclear, and the payment is money, the performance shall be effected at the seat or place of residence of the party receiving the payment; if the payment is other than money, the performance shall be effected at the seat or place of residence of the party fulfilling the obligations.

     ?。ㄋ模﹥r款約定不明確的,按照國家規定的價格履行2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;沒有國家規定價格的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,參照市場價格或者同類物品的價格或者同類勞務的報酬標準履行2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    (4) If the price agreed by the parties is unclear, the state-fixed price shall apply. If there is no state-fixed price, the price shall be based on market price or the price of a similar article or remuneration for a similar service.

      合同對專利申請權沒有約定的,完成發明創造的當事人享有申請權。

    If the contract does not contain an agreed term regarding rights to patent application, any party who has completed an invention-creation shall have the right to apply for a patent.

      合同對科技成果的使用權沒有約定的,當事人都有使用的權利2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    If the contract does not contain an agreed term regarding rights to patent application, and technological research achievements, the parties shall all have the right to use such achievements.

      第八十九條依照法律的規定或者按照當事人的約定,可以采用下列方式擔保債務的履行:

    Article 89 In accordance with legal provisions the agreement between the parties on the performance of a debt may be guaranteed using the methods below:

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄒ唬┍WC人向債權人保證債務人履行債務,債務人不履行債務的,按照約定由保證人履行或者承擔連帶責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;保證人履行債務后,有權向債務人追償2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    (1) A guarantor may guarantee to the creditor that the debtor shall perform his debt. If the debtor defaults, the guarantor shall perform the debt or bear joint liability according to agreement. After performing the debt, the guarantor shall have the right to claim repayment from the debtor.

     ?。ǘ﹤鶆杖嘶蛘叩谌丝梢蕴峁┮欢ǖ呢敭a作為抵押物2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    (2) The debtor or a third party may offer a specific property as a pledge.

      債務人不履行債務的,債權人有權依照法律的規定以抵押物折價或者以變賣抵押物的價款優先得到償還。

    If the debtor defaults, the creditors shall be entitled to keep the pledge to offset the debt or have priority in satisfying his claim out of the proceeds from the sale of the pledge pursuant to relevant legal provisions.

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄈ┊斒氯艘环皆诜梢幎ǖ姆秶鷥瓤梢韵驅Ψ浇o付定金。債務人履行債務后,定金應當抵作價款或者收回2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。給付定金的一方不履行債務的,無權要求返還定金;接受定金的一方不履行債務的,應當雙倍返還定金。

    (3) Within the limits of relevant legal provisions, a party may leave a deposit with the other party. After the debtor has discharged his debt, the deposit shall either be retained as partial payment of the debt or be returned. If the party who leaves the deposit defaults, he shall not be entitled to demand the return of the deposit; if the party who accepts the deposit defaults, he shall repay the deposit in double.

     ?。ㄋ模┌凑蘸贤s定一方占有對方的財產,對方不按照合同給付應付款項超過約定期限的,占有人有權留置該財產,依照法律的規定以留置財產折價或者以變賣該財產的價款優先得到償還。

    (4) If a party has possession of the other party's property according to contract and the other party violates the contract by failing to pay a required sum of money within the specified time limit, the possessor shall have a lien on the property and may keep the retained property to offset the debt or have priority in satisfying his claim out of the proceeds from the sale of the property pursuant to relevant legal provisions.

      第九十條合法的借貸關系受法律保護。

    Article 90 Legitimate loan relationships shall be protected by law.

      第九十一條合同一方將合同的權利2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、義務全部或者部分轉讓給第三人的,應當取得合同另一方的同意,并不得牟利。依照法律規定應當由國家批準的合同,需經原批準機關批準2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。但是,法律另有規定或者原合同另有約定的除外2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 91 If a party to a contract transfers all or part of his contractual rights or obligations to a third party, he shall obtain the other party's consent and may not seek profits therefrom. Contracts which according to legal provisions are subject to state approval, such as transfers, must be approved by the authority that originally approved the contract, unless the law or the original contract stipulates otherwise.

      第九十二條沒有合法根據,取得不當利益,造成他人損失的,應當將取得的不當利益返還受損失的人。

    Article 92 If profits are acquired improperly and without a lawful basis, resulting in another person's loss, the illegal profits shall be returned to the person who suffered the loss.

      第九十三條沒有法定的或者約定的義務2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,為避免他人利益受損失進行管理或者服務的,有權要求受益人償付由此而支付的必要費用。

    Article 93 If a person acts as manager or provides services in order to protect another person's interests when he is not legally or contractually obligated to do so, he shall be entitled to claim from the beneficiary the expenses necessary for such assistance.

      第五章民事權利第三節知識產權

    Section 3 Intellectual Property Rights

      第九十四條公民、法人享有著作權(版權)2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,依法有署名、發表、出版2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、獲得報酬等權利。

    Article 94 Citizens and legal persons shall enjoy rights of authorship (copyrights) and shall be entitled to sign their names as authors, issue and publish their works and obtain remuneration in accordance with the law.

      第九十五條公民、法人依法取得的專利權受法律保護2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 95 The patent rights lawfully obtained by citizens and legal persons shall be protected by law.

      第九十六條法人、個體工商戶、個人合伙依法取得的商標專用權受法律保護。

    Article 96 The rights to exclusive use of trademarks obtained by legal persons, individual businesses and individual partnerships shall be protected by law.

      第九十七條公民對自己的發現享有發現權。發現人有權申請領取發現證書、獎金或者其他獎勵。

    Article 97 Citizens who make discoveries shall be entitled to the rights of discovery. A discoverer shall have the right to apply for and receive certificates of discovery, bonuses or other awards.

      公民對自己的發明或者其他科技成果2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,有權申請領取榮譽證書、獎金或者其他獎勵。

    Citizens who make inventions or other achievements in scientific and technological research shall have the right to apply for and receive certificates of honour, bonuses or other awards.

      第五章民事權利第四節

    Section 4 Personal Rights

      第九十八條公民享有生命健康權。

    Article 98 Citizens shall enjoy the rights of life and health.

      第九十九條公民享有姓名權,有權決定、使用和依照規定改變自己的姓名,禁止他人干涉、盜用、假冒2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 99 Citizens shall enjoy the right of personal name and shall be entitled to determine, use or change their personal names in accordance with relevant provisions. Interference with, usurpation of and false representation of personal names shall be prohibited.

      法人2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、個體工商戶2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、個人合伙享有名稱權。企業法人、個體工商戶、個人合伙有權使用2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、依法轉讓自己的名稱2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Legal persons, individual businesses and individual partnerships shall enjoy the right of name. Enterprises as legal persons, individual businesses and individual partnerships shall have the right to use and lawfully assign their own names.

      第一百條公民享有肖像權,

    Article 100 Citizens shall enjoy the right of portrait.

      未經本人同意2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,不得以營利為目的使用公民的肖像。

    The use of a citizen's portrait for profit without his consent shall be prohibited.

      第一百零一條公民、法人享有名譽權,公民的人格尊嚴受法律保護,禁止用侮辱、誹謗等方式損害公民2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、法人的名譽2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 101 Citizens and legal persons shall enjoy the right of reputation. The personality of citizens shall be protected by law, and the use of insults, libel or other means to damage the reputation of citizens or legal persons shall be prohibited.

      第一百零二條公民、法人享有榮譽權,禁止非法剝奪公民2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、法人的榮譽稱號。

    Article 102 Citizens and legal persons shall enjoy the right of honour. It shall be prohibited to unlawfully divest citizens and legal persons of their honorary titles.

      第一百零三條公民享有婚姻自主權2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,禁止買賣2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、包辦婚姻和其他干涉婚姻自由的行為。

    Article 103 Citizens shall enjoy the right of marriage by choice. Mercenary marriages, marriages upon arbitrary decision by any third party and any other acts of interference in the freedom of marriage shall be prohibited.

      第一百零四條婚姻、家庭、老人、母親和兒童受法律保護。

    Article 104 Marriage, the family, old people, mothers and children shall be protected by law.

      殘疾人的合法權益受法律保護。

    The lawful rights and interests of the handicapped shall be protected by law.

      第一百零五條婦女享有同男子平等的民事權利。

    Article 105 Women shall enjoy equal civil rights with men.

      第六章民事責任第一節一般規定

    Chapter VI Civil Liability Section 1 General Stipulations

      第一百零六條公民、法人違反合同或者不履行其他義務的,應當承擔民事責任。

    Article 106 Citizens and legal persons who breach a contract or fail to fulfil other obligations shall bear civil liability.

      公民、法人由于過錯侵害國家的、集體的財產,侵害他人財產、人身的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,應當承擔民事責任。

    Citizens and legal persons who through their fault encroach upon state or collective property or the property or person of other people shall bear civil liability.

      沒有過錯,但法律規定應當承擔民事責任的,應當承擔民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Civil liability shall still be borne even in the absence of fault, if the law so stipulates.

      第一百零七條因不可抗力不能履行合同或者造成他人損害的,不承擔民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,法律另有規定的除外。

    Article 107 Civil liability shall not be borne for failure to perform a contract or damage to a third party if it is caused by force majeure, except as otherwise provided by law.

      第一百零八條債務應當清償。暫時無力償還的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,經債權人同意或者人民法院裁決2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,可以由債務人分期償還。有能力償還拒不償還的,由人民法院判決強制償還2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 108 Debts shall be cleared. If a debtor is unable to repay his debt immediately, he may repay by instalments with the consent of the creditor or a ruling by a people's court. If a debtor is capable of repaying his debt but refuses to do so, repayment shall be compelled by the decision of a people's court.

      第一百零九條因防止2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、制止國家的、集體的財產或者他人的財產、人身遭受侵害而使自己受到損害的,由侵害人承擔賠償責任,受益人也可以給予適當的補償。

    Article 109 If a person suffers damages from preventing or stopping encroachment on state or collective property, or the property or person of a third party, the infringer shall bear responsibility for compensation, and the beneficiary may also give appropriate compensation.

      第一百一十條對承擔民事責任的公民、法人需要追究行政責任的,應當追究行政責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;構成犯罪的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,對公民、法人的法定代表人應當依法追究刑事責任。

    Article 110 Citizens or legal persons who bear civil liability shall also be held for administrative responsibility if necessary. If the acts committed by citizens and legal persons constitute crimes, criminal responsibility of their legal representatives shall be investigated in accordance with the law.

      第六章民事責任第二節違反合同的民事責任

    Section 2 Civil Liability for Breach of Contract

      第一百一十一條當事人一方不履行合同義務或者履行合同義務不符合約定條件的,另一方有權要求履行或者采取補救措施,并有權要求賠償損失。

    Article 111 If a party fails to fulfil its contractual obligations or violates the term of a contract while fulfilling the obligations, the other party shall have the right to demand fulfillment or the taking of remedial measures and claim compensation for its losses.

      第一百一十二條當事人一方違反合同的賠償責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,應當相當于另一方因此所受到的損失。

    Article 112 The party that breaches a contract shall be liable for compensation equal to the losses consequently suffered by the other party.

      當事人可以在合同中約定,一方違反合同時,向另一方支付一定數額的違約金;也可以在合同中約定對于違反合同而產生的損失賠償額的計算方法。

    The parties may specify in a contract that if one party breaches the contract it shall pay the other party a certain amount of breach of contract damages; they may also specify in the contract the method of assessing the compensation for any losses resulting from a breach of contract.

      第一百一十三條當事人雙方都違反合同的,應當分別承擔各自應負的民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 113 If both parties breach the contract, each party shall bear its respective civil liability.

      第一百一十四條當事人一方因另一方違反合同受到損失的,應當及時采取措施防止損失的擴大2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;沒有及時采取措施致使損失擴大的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,無權就擴大的損失要求賠償2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 114 If one party is suffering losses owing to the other party's breach of contract, it shall take prompt measures to prevent the losses from increasing; if it does not promptly do so, it shall not have the right to claim compensation for the additional losses.

      第一百一十五條合同的變更或者解除,不影響當事人要求賠償損失的權利2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 115 A party's right to claim compensation for losses shall not be affected by the alteration or termination of a contract.

      第一百一十六條當事人一方由于上級機關的原因,不能履行合同義務的,應當按照合同約定向另一方賠償損失或者采取其他補救措施,再由上級機關對它因此受到的損失負責處理。

    Article 116 If a party fails to fulfil its contractual obligations on account of a higher authority, it shall first compensate for the losses of the other party or take other remedial measures as contractually agreed and then the higher authority shall be responsible for settling the losses it sustained.

      第六章民事責任第三節侵權的民事責任

    Section 3 Civil Liability for Infringement of Rights

      第一百一十七條侵占國家的、集體的財產或者他人財產的,應當返還財產,不能返還財產的,應當折價賠償。

    Article 117 Anyone who encroaches on the property of the state, a collective or another person shall return the property; failing that, he shall reimburse its estimated price.

      損壞國家的、集體的財產或者他人財產的,應當恢復原狀或者折價賠償。

    Anyone who damages the property of the state, a collective or another person shall restore the property to its original condition or reimburse its estimated price.

      受害人因此遭受其他重大損失的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,侵害人并應當賠償損失。

    If the victim suffers other great losses therefrom, the infringer shall compensate for those losses as well.

      第一百一十八條公民2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、法人的著作權(版權)、專利權、商標專用權2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、發現權、發明權和其他科技成果權受到剽竊、篡改、假冒等侵害的,有權要求停止侵害2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,消除影響,賠償損失。

    Article 118 If the rights of authorship (copyrights), patent rights, rights to exclusive use of trademarks, rights of discovery, rights of invention or rights for scientific and technological research achievements of citizens or legal persons are infringed upon by such means as plagiarism, alteration or imitation, they shall have the right to demand that the infringement be stopped, its ill effects be eliminated and the damages be compensated for.

      第一百一十九條侵害公民身體造成傷害的,應當賠償醫療費、因誤工減少的收入、殘廢者生活補助費等費用;造成死亡的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,并應當支付喪葬費、死者生前扶養的人必要的生活費等費用2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 119 Anyone who infringes upon a citizen's person and causes him physical injury shall pay his medical expenses and his loss in income due to missed working time and shall pay him living subsidies if he is disabled; if the victim dies, the infringe shall also pay the funeral expenses, the necessary living expenses of the deceased's dependents and other such expenses.

      第一百二十條公民的姓名權2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、肖像權、名譽權、榮譽權受到侵害的,有權要求停止侵害2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,恢復名譽,消除影響2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,賠禮道歉,并可以要求賠償損失。

    Article 120 If a citizen's right of personal name, portrait, reputation or honour is infringed upon, he shall have the right to demand that the infringement be stopped, his reputation be rehabilitated, the ill effects be eliminated and an apology be made; he may also demand compensation for losses.

      法人的名稱權2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、名譽權、榮譽權受到侵害的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,適用前款規定。

    The above paragraph shall also apply to infringements upon a legal person's right of name, reputation or honour.

      第一百二十一條國家機關或者國家機關工作人員在執行職務中,侵犯公民、法人的合法權益造成損害的,應當承擔民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 121 If a state organ or its personnel, while executing its duties, encroaches upon the lawful rights and interests of a citizen or legal person and causes damage, it shall bear civil liability.

      第一百二十二條因產品質量不合格造成他人財產2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、人身損害的,產品制造者、銷售者應當依法承擔民事責任。運輸者、倉儲者對此負有責任的,產品制造者、銷售者有權要求賠償損失。

    Article 122 If a substandard product causes property damage or physical injury to others, the manufacturer or seller shall bear civil liability according to law. If the transporter or storekeeper is responsible for the matter, the manufacturer or seller shall have the right to demand compensation for its losses.

      第一百二十三條從事高空、高壓、易燃、易爆、劇毒、放射性2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、高速運輸工具等對周圍環境有高度危險的作業造成他人損害的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,應當承擔民事責任;如果能夠證明損害是由受害人故意造成的,不承擔民事責任。

    Article 123 If any person causes damage to other people by engaging in operations that are greatly hazardous to the surroundings, such as operations conducted high aboveground, or those involving high pressure, high voltage, combustibles, explosives, highly toxic or radioactive substances or high- speed means of transport, he shall bear civil liability; however, if it can be proven that the damage was deliberately caused by the victim, he shall not bear civil liability.

      第一百二十四條違反國家保護環境防止污染的規定,污染環境造成他人損害的,應當依法承擔民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 124 Any person who pollutes the environment and causes damage to others in violation of state provisions for environmental protection and the prevention of pollution shall bear civil liability in accordance with the law.

      第一百二十五條在公共場所2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、道旁或者通道上挖坑2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、修繕安裝地下設施等,沒有設置明顯標志和采取安全措施造成他人損害的,施工人應當承擔民事責任。

    Article 125 Any constructor who engages in excavation, repairs or installation of underground facilities in a public place, on a roadside or in a passageway without setting up clear signs and adopting safety measures and thereby causes damage to others shall bear civil liability.

      第一百二十六條建筑物或者其他設施以及建筑物上的擱置物、懸掛物發生倒塌、脫落、墜落造成他人損害的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,它的所有人或者管理人應當承擔民事責任,但能夠證明自己沒有過錯的除外。

    Article 126 If a building or any other installation or an object placed or hung on a structure collapses, detaches or drops down and causes damage to others, its owner or manager shall bear civil liability, unless he can prove himself not at fault.

      第一百二十七條飼養的動物造成他人損害的,動物飼養人或者管理人應當承擔民事責任;由于受害人的過錯造成損害的,動物飼養人或者管理人不承擔民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;由于第三人的過錯造成損害的,第三人應當承擔民事責任。

    Article 127 If a domesticated animal causes harm to any person, its keeper or manager shall bear civil liability. If the harm occurs through the fault of the victim, the keeper or manager shall not bear civil liability; if the harm occurs through the fault of a third party, the third party shall bear civil liability.

      第一百二十八條因正當防衛造成損害的,不承擔民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。正當防衛超過必要的限度2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,造成不應有的損害的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,應當承擔適當的民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 128 A person who causes harm in exercising justifiable defence shall not bear civil liability. If justifiable defence exceeds the limits of necessity and undue harm is caused, an appropriate amount of civil liability shall be borne.

      第一百二十九條因緊急避險造成損害的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,由引起險情發生的人承擔民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 129 If harm occurs through emergency actions taken to avoid danger, the person who gave rise to the danger shall bear civil liability.

      如果危險是由自然原因引起的,緊急避險人不承擔民事責任或者承擔適當的民事責任。

    If the danger arose from natural causes, the person who took the emergency actions may either be exempt from civil liability or bear civil liability to an appropriate extent.

      因緊急避險采取措施不當或者超過必要的限度,造成不應有的損害的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,緊急避險人應當承擔適當的民事責任。

    If the emergency measures taken are improper or exceed the limits of necessity and undue harm is caused, the person who took the emergency action shall bear civil liability to an appropriate extent.

      第一百三十條二人以上共同侵權造成他人損害的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,應當承擔連帶責任。

    Article 130 If two or more persons jointly infringe upon another person's rights and cause him damage, they shall bear joint liability.

      第一百三十一條受害人對于損害的發生也有過錯的,可以減輕侵害人的民事責任。

    Article 131 If a victim is also at fault for causing the damage, the civil liability of the infringe may be reduced.

      第一百三十二條當事人對造成損害都沒有過錯的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,可以根據實際情況,由當事人分擔民事責任2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 132 If none of the parties is at fault in causing damage, they may share civil liability according to the actual circumstances.

      第一百三十三條無民事行為能力人、限制民事行為能力人造成他人損害的,由監護人承擔民事責任。

    Article 133 If a person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct causes damage to others, his guardian shall bear civil liability.

      監護人盡了監護責任的,可以適當減輕他的民事責任。

    If the guardian has done his duty of guardianship, his civil liability may be appropriately reduced.

      有財產的無民事行為能力人、限制民事行為能力人造成他人損害的,從本人財產中支付賠償費用2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    If a person who has property but is without or with limited capacity for civil conduct causes damage to others, the expenses of compensation shall be paid from his property.

      不足部分2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,由監護人適當賠償,但單位擔任監護人的除外2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Shortfalls in such expenses shall be appropriately compensated for by the guardian unless the guardian is a unit.

      第四節承擔民事責任的方式

    Section 4 Methods of Bearing Civil Liability

      第一百三十四條承擔民事責任的方式主要有:

    Article 134 The main methods of bearing civil liability shall be:

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄒ唬┩V骨趾?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (1) cessation of infringements;

     ?。ǘ┡懦恋K;

    (2) removal of obstacles;

     ?。ㄈ┫kU2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (3) elimination of dangers;

     ?。ㄋ模┓颠€財產;

    (4) return of property;

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄎ澹┗謴驮瓲?;

    (5) restoration of original condition;

     ?2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。┬蘩?、重作、更換2020欧洲杯竞猜平台;

    (6) repair, reworking or replacement;

     ?020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄆ撸┵r償損失;

    (7) compensation for losses;

     ?。ò耍┲Ц哆`約金;

    (8) payment of breach of contract damages;

     ?。ň牛┫绊?、恢復名譽;

    (9) elimination of ill effects and rehabilitation of reputation;

     ?020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄊ┵r禮道歉。

    and (10) extension of apology.

      以上承擔民事責任的方式,可以單獨適用,也可以合并適用2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    The above methods of bearing civil liability may be applied exclusively or concurrently.

      人民法院審理民事案件2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,除適用上述規定外,還可以予以訓誡、責令具結悔過、收繳進行非法活動的財物和非法所得2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,并可以依照法律規定處以罰款、拘留2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    When hearing civil cases, a people's court, in addition to applying the above stipulations, may serve admonitions, order the offender to sign a pledge of repentance, and confiscate the property used in carrying out illegal activities and the illegal income obtained therefrom.It may also impose fines or detentions as stipulated by law.

      第七章訴訟時效

    Chapter VII Limitation of Action

      第一百三十五條向人民法院請求保護民事權利的訴訟時效期間為二年2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,法律另有規定的除外。

    Article 135 Except as otherwise stipulated by law, the limitation of action regarding applications to a people's court for protection of civil rights shall be two years.

      第一百三十六條下列的訴訟時效期間為一年:

    Article 136 The limitation of action shall be one year in cases concerning the following:

     ?020欧洲杯竞猜平台。ㄒ唬┥眢w受到傷害要求賠償的;

    (1) claims for compensation for bodily injuries;

     ?。ǘ┏鍪圪|量不合格的商品未聲明的;

    (2) sales of substandard goods without proper notice to that effect;

     ?。ㄈ┭痈痘蛘呔芨蹲饨鸬?;

    (3) delays in paying rent or refusal to pay rent;

     ?。ㄋ模┘拇尕斘锉粊G失或者損毀的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    or (4) loss of or damage to property left in the care of another person.

      第一百三十七條訴訟時效期間從知道或者應當知道權利被侵害時起計算。但是,從權利被侵害之日起超過二十年的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,人民法院不予保護2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。有特殊情況的,人民法院可以延長訴訟時效期間。

    Article 137 A limitation of action shall begin when the entitled person knows or should know that his rights have been infringed upon. However, the people's court shall not protect his rights if 20 years have passed since the infringement. Under special circumstances, the people's court may extend the limitation of action.

      第一百三十八條超過訴訟時效期間,當事人自愿履行的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,不受訴訟時效限制。

    Article 138 If a party chooses to fulfil obligations voluntarily after the limitation of action has expired, he shall not be subject to the limitation.

      第一百三十九條在訴訟時效期間的最后六個月內2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,因不可抗力或者其他障礙不能行使請求權的,訴訟時效中止2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 139 A limitation of action shall be suspended during the last six months of the limitation if the plaintiff cannot exercise his right of claim because of force majeure or other obstacles.

      從中止時效的原因消除之日起,訴訟時效期間繼續計算。

    The limitation shall resume on the day when the grounds for the suspension are eliminated.

      第一百四十條訴訟時效因提起訴訟、當事人一方提出要求或者同意履行義務而中斷。從中斷時起,訴訟時效期間重新計算。

    Article 140 A limitation of action shall be discontinued if suit is brought or if one party makes a claim for or agrees to fulfillment of obligations. A new limitation shall be counted from the time of the discontinuance.

      第一百四十一條法律對訴訟時效另有規定的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,依照法律規定。

    Article 141 If the law has other stipulations concerning limitation of action, those stipulations shall apply.

      第八章涉外民事關系的法律適用

    Chapter VIII Application of Law in Civil Relations with Foreigners

      第一百四十二條涉外民事關系的法律適用,依照本章的規定確定2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 142 The application of law in civil relations with foreigners shall be determined by the provisions in this chapter.

      中華人民共和國締結或者參加的國際條約同中華人民共和國的民事法律有不同規定的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,適用國際條約的規定,但中華人民共和國聲明保留的條款除外2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    If any international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China contains provisions differing from those in the civil laws of the People's Republic of China, the provisions of the international treaty shall apply, unless the provisions are ones on which the People's Republic of China has announced reservations.

      中華人民共和國法律和中華人民共和國締結或者參加的國際條約沒有規定的,可以適用國際慣例。

    International practice may be applied to matters for which neither the law of the People's Republic of China nor any international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China has any provisions.

      第一百四十三條中華人民共和國公民定居國外的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,他的民事行為能力可以適用定居國法律。

    Article 143 If a citizen of the People's Republic of China settles in a foreign country, the law of that country may be applicable as regards his capacity for civil conduct.

      第一百四十四條不動產的所有權2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,適用不動產所在地法律。

    Article 144 The ownership of immovable property shall be bound by the law of the place where it is situated.

      第一百四十五條涉外合同的當事人可以選擇處理合同爭議所適用的法律,法律另有規定的除外2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 145 The parties to a contract involving foreign interests may choose the law applicable to settlement of their contractual disputes, except as otherwise stipulated by law.

      涉外合同的當事人沒有選擇的,適用與合同有最密切聯系的國家的法律。

    If the parties to a contract involving foreign interests have not made a choice, the law of the country to which the contract is most closely connected shall be applied.

      第一百四十六條侵權行為的損害賠償,適用侵權行為地法律。當事人雙方國籍相同或者在同一國家有住所的,也可以適用當事人本國法律或者住所地法律。

    Article 146 The law of the place where an infringing act is committed shall apply in handling compensation claims for any damage caused by the act. If both parties are citizens of the same country or have established domicile in another country, the law of their own country or the country of domicile may be applied.

      中華人民共和國法律不認為在中華人民共和國領域外發生的行為是侵權行為的,不作為侵權行為處理。

    An act committed outside the People's Republic of China shall not be treated as an infringing act if under the law of the People's Republic of China it is not considered an infringing act.

      第一百四十七條中華人民共和國公民和外國人結婚適用婚姻締結地法律,離婚適用受理案件的法院所在地法律2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 147 The marriage of a citizen of the People's Republic of China to a foreigner shall be bound by the law of the place where they get married, while a divorce shall be bound by the law of the place where a court accepts the case.

      第一百四十八條扶養適用與被扶養人有最密切聯系的國家的法律。

    Article 148 Maintenance of a spouse after divorce shall be bound by the law of the country to which the spouse is most closely connected.

      第一百四十九條遺產的法定繼承,動產適用被繼承人死亡時住所地法律,不動產適用不動產所在地法律。

    Article 149 In the statutory succession of an estate, movable property shall be bound by the law of the decedent's last place of residence, and immovable property shall be bound by the law of the place where the property is situated.

      第一百五十條依照本章規定適用外國法律或者國際慣例的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,不得違背中華人民共和國的社會公共利益。

    Article 150 The application of foreign laws or international practice in accordance with the provisions of this chapter shall not violate the public interest of the People's Republic of China.

      第九章

    Chapter IX Supplementary provisions

      第一百五十一條民族自治地方的人民代表大會可以根據本法規定的原則2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,結合當地民族的特點,制定變通的或者補充的單行條例或者規定。

    Article 151 The people's congresses of the national autonomous areas may formulate separate adaptive or supplementary regulations or provisions in accordance with the principles of this Law and in light of the characteristics of the local nationalities.

      自治區人民代表大會制定的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,依照法律規定報全國人民代表大會常務委員會批準或者備案;自治州、自治縣人民代表大會制定的,報省、自治區人民代表大會常務委員會批準。

    Those formulated by the people's congresses of autonomous regions shall be submitted in accordance with the law to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for approval or for the record. Those formulated by the people's congresses of autonomous prefectures or autonomous counties shall be submitted to the standing committee of the people's congress in the relevant province or autonomous region for approval.

      第一百五十二條本法生效以前,經省2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、自治區、直轄市以上主管機關批準開辦的全民所有制企業,已經向工商行政管理機關登記的,可以不再辦理法人登記2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,即具有法人資格。

    Article 152 If an enterprise owned by the whole people has been established with the approval of the competent authority of a province, autonomous region or centrally administered municipality or at a higher level and it has already been registered with the administrative agency for industry and commerce, before this Law comes into force, it shall automatically qualify as a legal person without having to re-register as such.

      第一百五十三條本法所稱的“不可抗力”2020欧洲杯竞猜平台2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,是指不能預見、不能避免并不能克服的客觀情況。

    Article 153 For the purpose of this Law, "force majeure" means unforeseeable, unavoidable and insurmountable objective conditions.

      第一百五十四條民法所稱的期間按照公歷年2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、月、日、小時計算2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 154 Time periods referred to in the Civil Law shall be calculated by the Gregorian calendar in years, months, days and hours.

      規定按照小時計算期間的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,從規定時開始計算。規定按照日、月、年計算期間的2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,開始的當天不算入2020欧洲杯竞猜平台,從下一天開始計算。

    When a time period is prescribed in hours, calculation of the period shall begin on the prescribed hour. When a time period is prescribed in days, months and years, the day on which the period begins shall not be counted as within the period; calculation shall begin on the next day.

      期間的最后一天是星期日或者其他法定休假日的,以休假日的次日為期間的最后一天2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    If the last day of a time period falls on a Sunday or an official holiday, the day after the holiday shall be taken as the last day.

      期間的最后一天的截止時間為二十四點。有業務時間的,到停止業務活動的時間截止。

    The last day shall end at 24:00 hours. If business hours are applicable, the last day shall end at closing time.

      第一百五十五條民法所稱的“以上”、“以下”、“以內”、“屆滿”,包括本數;所稱的“不滿”2020欧洲杯竞猜平台、“以外”,不包括本數。

    Article 155 In this Law, the terms "not less than," "not more than," "within" and "expires" shall include the given figure; the terms "under" and "beyond" shall not include the given figure.

      第一百五十六條本法自一九八七年一月一日起施行2020欧洲杯竞猜平台。

    Article 156 This Law shall come into force on January 1, 1987.

    2020欧洲杯竞猜平台